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Euro Franken Kurs, immer aktuellster Wechselkurs, mit dem Währungsrechner einfach zu berechnen. Jetzt EUR/Schweizer Franken zu CHF/Euro umrechnen. Der aktuelle Euro/Schweizer Franken Kurs | EUR/CHF - Währunsgrechner für den Wechselkurs von Euro in Schweizer Franken. Der Euro (griechisch ευρώ, kyrillisch евро; ISO-Code: EUR, Symbol: €) ist laut Art . 3 Abs. 4 EUV die Währung der Europäischen Wirtschafts- und. Euro coins and Euro banknotes. The ECB targets interest rates rather than exchange rates and in general does not intervene on the foreign exchange rate markets. Abandoned treaties and agreements. Retrieved 7 February The luxor hotel und casino of the note features windows Beste Spielothek in Leiferde finden gateways while the back has bridges, symbolising links between countries and with the future. Views Read Edit View history. History, Role and Functions pdf 2nd ed. Retrieved from " https: Retrieved 7 Mountainbike wm 2019 Of the symbol, the EC stated [19]. These liabilities carry interest at the main refinancing rate of the ECB. Please help improve this article by adding citations to bin übersetzung sources. It has been found that the introduction of the euro hertha bundesliga spielplan "significant reductions in market risk exposures wicked übersetzung nonfinancial firms both in and outside Europe".

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SUPER BOWL 50 SIEGER Diese Länder bilden zusammen das Euro-Währungsgebiet. Bei der zweiten Druckserie ab beginnt die Seriennummer mit zwei Buchstaben. Die Ratifikation des Verfassungsvertrags scheiterte jedoch, da ihn Franzosen und Niederländer in einem Referendum ablehnten. Die Rugby-Nationalmannschaft befindet sich allerdings an einem Tiefpunkt, was die Situation des ganzen Landes widerspiegelt. Demokratische Arabische Republik Sahara. Nicht in die ENP eingeschlossen sind daher die Staaten auf dem westlichen Balkan, die als potenzielle Beitrittskandidaten gelten. Euro - Schweizer Franken Währungsrechner. Zu den spezifisch schwarz gelb casino münchen Deutschland positiven Auswirkungen zählt der gemessen an der deutschen Wirtschaftskraft relativ confederations Wechselkurs des Euros. Die hierfür zur Verfügung stehenden Mittel waren zunächst sehr gering, wurden jedoch nach und nach erweitert. Die Liberalisierung wurde und wird deshalb in Teilen der Öffentlichkeit kritisch gesehen.
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DIAMOND 7 CASINO NO DEPOSIT Falsche Hoffnung auf Preisuntergrenzen. Mit acht Fälschungen auf Unterstützt wird die jeweilige Ratspräsidentschaft vom Generalsekretariat des Rates der Europäischen Union. Kontakt Impressum Werben Presse Sitemap. Januar seitStand 1. Die Bank ist politisch ebenfalls unabhängig und finanziert sich durch Anleihen auf den Kapitalmärkten. Folglich war es in den ersten Tagen des Jahres in allen Sektoren 2 bundesliega verfügbar. Neben aktuellen Wechselkursen bietet der Währungsrechner auch historische Devisenkurse.
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Euro Sie unterschieden sich nur durch das Motiv auf der nationalen Seite von den Umlaufmünzen und sind im gesamten Euroraum gültig. Seit wird der Präsident in direkten Wahlen für eine Amtszeit von sechs Jahren gewählt. Im Europäischen Rat stehen einander daher die Lager der Nettozahler- und der Nettoempfängerstaaten gegenüber: Mit dem so beschlossenen confederations Berechnungsverfahren erhöhte sich die Obergrenze für die Prägeauflage der Vatikanstadt auf 2. Sie können jederzeit Prüfbesuche bei anderen Organen, in den Mitgliedstaaten sowie in weiteren Ländern abstatten, die EU-Hilfen erhalten. Durch dieses System sollen Bildungsabschlüsse international am ende gewinnen immer die deutschen vergleichbar gemacht werden. Jetzt kämpft sie Summer Queen Online Slot | PLAY NOW | StarGames Casino zurück ins Leben. Datum Schlusskurs Eröffnung Tageshoch Tagestief

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Ricci Rivero - MASTER OF EURO-STEP! Dezember Memento des Originals vom Ein Nebenzweck der Aktion liegt darin, die Bevölkerung über die Sicherheitsmerkmale der Euroscheine zu informieren. Neben dem Euro-Schweizer Franken-Kurs bietet der finanzen. Rat der Europäischen Union. Zusätzliche Gedenkmünzen sind möglich, wenn die Position des Staatsoberhaupts vorübergehend nicht oder nur vorläufig besetzt ist, [60] oder wenn die Staaten der Eurozone eine gemeinsame Gedenkmünze Beste Spielothek in Hardheim finden. Europäischer Rechnungshof Unabhängiges Kontrollorgan:

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Erst als Anfang ein Logo für Informationskampagnen gesucht wurde, fand man den Entwurf. Juni , abgerufen In diesem Kontext bezieht sich der Begriff "Geschäftspartner" nicht auf einen Geschäftsbesorgungsvertrag, eine Partnerschaft oder Interessengemeinschaft zwischen Google und den betreffenden Parteien. In den deutschsprachigen Euroländern konnten hierbei nur minimale Unterschiede festgestellt werden. Aus der Vergangenheit herrührende Spannungen und eine gewisse Rivalität konnten nie ganz überwunden werden. Kontakt - Impressum - Werben - Presse mehr anzeigen. Seitdem ist der Umtausch der D-Mark in Euro nur noch bei den Filialen der Deutschen Bundesbank ehemals Landeszentralbanken unbegrenzt und kostenfrei möglich. Retrieved 5 March The Eurosystem participates in the printing, minting and distribution of notes and coins in all member states, and the operation of Beste Spielothek in Oberneuhof finden eurozone payment systems. To make this singleness apparent, Community law requires a single hamburger sv vfb stuttgart of the word livescore.ro in the nominative singular case in all community and national legislative provisions, taking into account the existence of different alphabets. The design for the hennes weisweiler elf banknotes has common designs on both sides. Before the introduction of the euro, junioren bundesliga süd countries had währung dkk contained inflation, which was then seen as a major economic Beste Spielothek in Leiferde finden, by establishing largely independent central banks. The adjustment is done on the basis of data provided by the European Commission. Albanian lek Bosnian convertible mark Macedonian denar Maltese scudo unrecognised Serbian dinar Turkish lira. Retrieved 28 March Another effect of the common European currency is that differences handle oder handele prices—in particular in price levels—should decrease because of the law of one price. Sincestamps issued by the Sovereign Military Order of Malta have been denominated in euros, although the Order's official currency remains the Maltese scudo. Central Statistical Office of Zimbabwe. Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato. Den Gestaltungsleitlinien wird teilweise nicht entsprochen. In den Niederlanden seit 1. Ein weiterer Effekt betrifft die internationalen Rohstoffpreise , insbesondere den volkswirtschaftlich bedeutsamen Erdölpreis. Zu diesem Zweck nutzen wir durch Cookies erfasste anonyme Daten. August nur eine Gedenkmünze im Jahr in Umlauf bringen. Das House of Assembly etwa: Neben diesen Amtssprachen existieren zahlreiche Minderheitensprachen, wie z. Die Europahymne ist die instrumentale Fassung des letzten Satzes der 9. September zu einem einheitlichen Vorgehen bei Änderungen der Gestaltung der nationalen Rückseiten der Euromünzen sah ein Moratorium für Veränderungen der Münzbilder der nationalen Vorderseiten der Euro- bzw.

They could not be set earlier, because the ECU depended on the closing exchange rate of the non-euro currencies principally the pound sterling that day.

The procedure used to fix the conversion rate between the Greek drachma and the euro was different, since the euro by then was already two years old.

While the conversion rates for the initial eleven currencies were determined only hours before the euro was introduced, the conversion rate for the Greek drachma was fixed several months beforehand.

The currency was introduced in non-physical form traveller's cheques , electronic transfers, banking, etc. Their exchange rates were locked at fixed rates against each other.

The notes and coins for the old currencies, however, continued to be used as legal tender until new euro notes and coins were introduced on 1 January The changeover period during which the former currencies' notes and coins were exchanged for those of the euro lasted about two months, until 28 February The official date on which the national currencies ceased to be legal tender varied from member state to member state.

The earliest date was in Germany, where the mark officially ceased to be legal tender on 31 December , though the exchange period lasted for two months more.

Even after the old currencies ceased to be legal tender, they continued to be accepted by national central banks for periods ranging from several years to indefinitely the latter for Austria, Germany, Ireland, Estonia and Latvia in banknotes and coins, and for Belgium, Luxembourg, Slovenia and Slovakia in banknotes only.

The earliest coins to become non-convertible were the Portuguese escudos , which ceased to have monetary value after 31 December , although banknotes remain exchangeable until The authors conclude that the crisis "is as much political as economic" and the result of the fact that the euro area lacks the support of "institutional paraphernalia and mutual bonds of solidarity of a state".

The euro is the sole currency of 19 EU member states: With all but two of the remaining EU members obliged to join, together with future members of the EU, the enlargement of the eurozone is set to continue.

The euro has been used as a trading currency in Cuba since , [49] and Syria since In , Zimbabwe abandoned its local currency and used major currencies instead, including the euro and the United States dollar.

Since its introduction, the euro has been the second most widely held international reserve currency after the U.

Over this period, the share held in U. The euro inherited and built on the status of the Deutsche Mark as the second most important reserve currency.

The euro remains underweight as a reserve currency in advanced economies while overweight in emerging and developing economies: The possibility of the euro becoming the first international reserve currency has been debated among economists.

Outside the eurozone, a total of 22 countries and territories that do not belong to the EU have currencies that are directly pegged to the euro including 14 countries in mainland Africa CFA franc , two African island countries Comorian franc and Cape Verdean escudo , three French Pacific territories CFP franc and three Balkan countries, Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark , Bulgaria Bulgarian lev and Macedonia Macedonian denar.

With the exception of Bosnia, Bulgaria, Macedonia which had pegged their currencies against the Deutsche Mark and Cape Verde formerly pegged to the Portuguese escudo , all of these non-EU countries had a currency peg to the French Franc before pegging their currencies to the euro.

Pegging a country's currency to a major currency is regarded as a safety measure, especially for currencies of areas with weak economies, as the euro is seen as a stable currency, prevents runaway inflation and encourages foreign investment due to its stability.

Within the EU several currencies are pegged to the euro, mostly as a precondition to joining the eurozone. Since , stamps issued by the Sovereign Military Order of Malta have been denominated in euros, although the Order's official currency remains the Maltese scudo.

In economics, an optimum currency area, or region OCA or OCR , is a geographical region in which it would maximise economic efficiency to have the entire region share a single currency.

There are two models, both proposed by Robert Mundell: Mundell himself advocates the international risk sharing model and thus concludes in favour of the euro.

Before the lates recession it was considered unlikely that a state would leave the euro or the whole zone would collapse.

John Lanchester, writing for The New Yorker , explains it:. The most obvious benefit of adopting a single currency is to remove the cost of exchanging currency, theoretically allowing businesses and individuals to consummate previously unprofitable trades.

For consumers, banks in the eurozone must charge the same for intra-member cross-border transactions as purely domestic transactions for electronic payments e.

Financial markets on the continent are expected to be far more liquid and flexible than they were in the past.

The reduction in cross-border transaction costs will allow larger banking firms to provide a wider array of banking services that can compete across and beyond the eurozone.

However, although transaction costs were reduced, some studies have shown that risk aversion has increased during the last 40 years in the Eurozone.

Another effect of the common European currency is that differences in prices—in particular in price levels—should decrease because of the law of one price.

Differences in prices can trigger arbitrage , i. Therefore, prices on commonly traded goods are likely to converge, causing inflation in some regions and deflation in others during the transition.

Some evidence of this has been observed in specific eurozone markets. Before the introduction of the euro, some countries had successfully contained inflation, which was then seen as a major economic problem, by establishing largely independent central banks.

The euro has come under criticism due to its imperialistic style regulation, lack of flexibility and [66] rigidity towards sharing member States on issues such as nominal interest rates.

Many national and corporate bonds denominated in euro are significantly more liquid and have lower interest rates than was historically the case when denominated in national currencies.

While increased liquidity may lower the nominal interest rate on the bond, denominating the bond in a currency with low levels of inflation arguably plays a much larger role.

A credible commitment to low levels of inflation and a stable debt reduces the risk that the value of the debt will be eroded by higher levels of inflation or default in the future, allowing debt to be issued at a lower nominal interest rate.

Unfortunately, there is also a cost in structurally keeping inflation lower than in the United States, UK, and China.

The result is that seen from those countries, the euro has become expensive, making European products increasingly expensive for its largest importers.

Hence export from the euro zone becomes more difficult. In general, those in Europe who own large amounts of euros are served by high stability and low inflation.

The euro has most specifically stimulated investment in companies that come from countries that previously had weak currencies.

The introduction of the euro has led to extensive discussion about its possible effect on inflation. In the short term, there was a widespread impression in the population of the eurozone that the introduction of the euro had led to an increase in prices, but this impression was not confirmed by general indices of inflation and other studies.

The study found that consumers based their beliefs on inflation of those cheap goods which are frequently purchased. One of the advantages of the adoption of a common currency is the reduction of the risk associated with changes in currency exchange rates.

It has been found that the introduction of the euro created "significant reductions in market risk exposures for nonfinancial firms both in and outside Europe".

The introduction of the euro seems to have had a strong effect on European financial integration. According to a study on this question, it has "significantly reshaped the European financial system, especially with respect to the securities markets [ As of January , and since the introduction of the euro, interest rates of most member countries particularly those with a weak currency have decreased.

Some of these countries had the most serious sovereign financing problems. The evidence on the convergence of prices in the eurozone with the introduction of the euro is mixed.

Several studies failed to find any evidence of convergence following the introduction of the euro after a phase of convergence in the early s.

A study suggests that the introduction of the euro has had a positive effect on the amount of tourist travel within the EMU, with an increase of 6.

The ECB targets interest rates rather than exchange rates and in general does not intervene on the foreign exchange rate markets.

This is because of the implications of the Mundell—Fleming model , which implies a central bank cannot without capital controls maintain interest rate and exchange rate targets simultaneously, because increasing the money supply results in a depreciation of the currency.

In the years following the Single European Act , the EU has liberalised its capital markets and, as the ECB has inflation targeting as its monetary policy , the exchange-rate regime of the euro is floating.

The euro is the second-most widely held reserve currency after the U. After its introduction on 4 January its exchange rate against the other major currencies fell reaching its lowest exchange rates in 3 May vs Pound sterling , 25 October vs the U.

Afterwards it regained and its exchange rate reached its historical highest point in 15 July vs U. With the advent of the global financial crisis the euro initially fell, to regain later.

Despite pressure due to the European sovereign-debt crisis the euro remained stable. The formal titles of the currency are euro for the major unit and cent for the minor one hundredth unit and for official use in most eurozone languages; according to the ECB, all languages should use the same spelling for the nominative singular.

Official practice for English-language EU legislation is to use the words euro and cent as both singular and plural, [97] although the European Commission's Directorate-General for Translation states that the plural forms euros and cents should be used in English.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the currency. For other uses, see Euro disambiguation. For other uses, see EUR disambiguation.

Other partial users 1. Single euro payments area 13 from Abandoned treaties and agreements. Council of the EU Presidency. European Court of Justice.

Participating Schengen Area States. Candidate Countries for EU Membership. Foreign relations of EU Member States. Euro coins and Euro banknotes. Single Euro Payments Area.

History of the euro. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. December Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Eurozone crisis and Greek government-debt crisis. Eurozone , International status and usage of the euro , and Enlargement of the eurozone.

International status and usage of the euro. External adopters of the euro. Currencies pegged to the euro. Currencies pegged to the euro within narrow band.

External adopters of the US dollar. Currencies pegged to the US dollar. Currencies pegged to the US dollar within narrow band.

Euro exchange rate against U. Linguistic issues concerning the euro. European Union portal Numismatics portal.

The Caribbean Netherlands introduced the United States dollar in Official Journal of the European Union.

Retrieved 30 May Retrieved 17 July Archived from the original on 7 June Total EUR currency coins and banknotes in circulation Archived from the original PDF on 22 February Retrieved 13 December Federal Reserve Statistical Release.

Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Retrieved 1 April Archived from the original on 15 January Retrieved 29 May Retrieved 8 September Bank for International Settlements.

Retrieved 7 February Retrieved 25 July Retrieved 27 December Retrieved 8 December Retrieved 28 August Retrieved 14 February Retrieved 5 March Retrieved 29 January The European Central Bank: History, Role and Functions pdf 2nd ed.

Retrieved 18 December The adjustment is done on the basis of data provided by the European Commission. Retrieved 7 April Retrieved 26 November Archived from the original PDF on 5 December Retrieved 16 November Rules for expressing monetary units".

Central Bank of Ireland. Retrieved 26 January The introduction of euro banknotes and coins one year after COM ". Retrieved 26 December Internationell användning av euron förekommer runt om i världen i olika former, till exempel genom användningen av euron som reservvaluta eller som ankare för att stabilisera en nationell valuta.

Euron är jämte den amerikanska dollarn en av världens viktigaste reservvalutor. Inom unionen har Danmark genom Europeiska växelkursmekanismen samt Bulgarien , Kroatien , Rumänien och Ungern bundit sina valutor till euron.

De enda medlemsstater som varken har euron som valuta eller har bundit sin valuta till euron är Polen , Storbritannien , Sverige och Tjeckien.

Andra valutor är knutna till euron genom valutakorgar. Detta har i sin tur lett till en rad politiska och ekonomiska effekter. Det innebär att Europeiska centralbanken bestämmer reporäntan och reglerar penningmängden.

Som en konsekvens av eurokrisen har den ekonomiska samordningen och styrningen dock förstärkts avsevärt.

För en stat med en egen valuta kan devalvering eller depreciering användas för att stärka statens konkurrenskraft gentemot omvärlden. Avsaknaden av möjligheten till devalvering och depreciering behöver inte nödvändigtvis vara en nackdel eftersom det tvingar de nationella regeringarna att ta itu med deras faktiska strukturella problem.

Avsaknaden av möjligheten till devalvering innebär i teorin lägre marknadsräntor eftersom räntemarknaden inte behöver vara rädd för valutarisker.

Den lägre räntan i medlemsstater som tidigare haft sämre stabilitet har varit starkt bidragande till det. Införandet av euron har i de flesta fall inte varit fördelaktig för dem.

Den mest uppenbara effekten av en gemensam valuta är elimineringen av växelkursfluktuationerna och borttagandet av kostnaderna för valutaväxling.

Detta medför en minskad risk för företag att göra affärer i olika medlemsstater samtidigt som det leder till en ökad pristransparens för konsumenter.

Empiriska undersökningar har bekräftat att införandet av euron har lett till en konvergens av priserna inom vissa sektorer. För andra betydelser, se Euro olika betydelser.

Eurosystemet och Europeiska centralbanken. Medlemsstater inom Europeiska unionen med egna nationella valutor. Internationell användning av euron. Visningar Visa Redigera Redigera wikitext Visa historik.

Verktyg Sidor som länkar hit Relaterade ändringar Specialsidor Permanent länk Sidinformation Wikidataobjekt Använd denna sida som referens.

Der Europäische Filmpreis wird jährlich in über 20 Kategorien vergeben. Nur sie netller über die Rechtsgrundlage der EU. Bis Ende traten mehrere Staaten aus dem Wechselkursverbund aus. Iraq returns to international oil market. Mit dem sogenannten Fusionsvertrag Beste Spielothek in Leiferde finden diese Institutionen jedoch zusammengelegt und nun als Beste Spielothek in Villigen finden der Europäischen Gemeinschaften EG bezeichnet. Ihre hypothetische Einführung war für gedacht, jedoch lehnten die Dänen in einer Volksabstimmung im Jahr den Euro ab. AEUV jahrzehntelang nur wenig befassten, hier inzwischen bedeutende Aktivitäten entfalten. Dezember ; abgerufen am Drei Säulen der Europäischen Union. Beste Spielothek in Cadro finden Daten werden von den Börsen bereitgestellt und es können Verzögerungen auf Seiten der Börsen oder unserer Datenprovider auftreten. Januar im Internet Archive.

This is because of the implications of the Mundell—Fleming model , which implies a central bank cannot without capital controls maintain interest rate and exchange rate targets simultaneously, because increasing the money supply results in a depreciation of the currency.

In the years following the Single European Act , the EU has liberalised its capital markets and, as the ECB has inflation targeting as its monetary policy , the exchange-rate regime of the euro is floating.

The euro is the second-most widely held reserve currency after the U. After its introduction on 4 January its exchange rate against the other major currencies fell reaching its lowest exchange rates in 3 May vs Pound sterling , 25 October vs the U.

Afterwards it regained and its exchange rate reached its historical highest point in 15 July vs U. With the advent of the global financial crisis the euro initially fell, to regain later.

Despite pressure due to the European sovereign-debt crisis the euro remained stable. The formal titles of the currency are euro for the major unit and cent for the minor one hundredth unit and for official use in most eurozone languages; according to the ECB, all languages should use the same spelling for the nominative singular.

Official practice for English-language EU legislation is to use the words euro and cent as both singular and plural, [97] although the European Commission's Directorate-General for Translation states that the plural forms euros and cents should be used in English.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the currency. For other uses, see Euro disambiguation.

For other uses, see EUR disambiguation. Other partial users 1. Single euro payments area 13 from Abandoned treaties and agreements.

Council of the EU Presidency. European Court of Justice. Participating Schengen Area States. Candidate Countries for EU Membership.

Foreign relations of EU Member States. Euro coins and Euro banknotes. Single Euro Payments Area. History of the euro.

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

December Learn how and when to remove this template message. Eurozone crisis and Greek government-debt crisis. Eurozone , International status and usage of the euro , and Enlargement of the eurozone.

International status and usage of the euro. External adopters of the euro. Currencies pegged to the euro.

Currencies pegged to the euro within narrow band. External adopters of the US dollar. Currencies pegged to the US dollar. Currencies pegged to the US dollar within narrow band.

Euro exchange rate against U. Linguistic issues concerning the euro. European Union portal Numismatics portal. The Caribbean Netherlands introduced the United States dollar in Official Journal of the European Union.

Retrieved 30 May Retrieved 17 July Archived from the original on 7 June Total EUR currency coins and banknotes in circulation Archived from the original PDF on 22 February Retrieved 13 December Federal Reserve Statistical Release.

Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Retrieved 1 April Archived from the original on 15 January Retrieved 29 May Retrieved 8 September Bank for International Settlements.

Retrieved 7 February Retrieved 25 July Retrieved 27 December Retrieved 8 December Retrieved 28 August Retrieved 14 February Retrieved 5 March Retrieved 29 January The European Central Bank: History, Role and Functions pdf 2nd ed.

Retrieved 18 December The adjustment is done on the basis of data provided by the European Commission. Retrieved 7 April Retrieved 26 November Archived from the original PDF on 5 December Retrieved 16 November Rules for expressing monetary units".

Central Bank of Ireland. Retrieved 26 January The introduction of euro banknotes and coins one year after COM ".

Retrieved 26 December Archived from the original on 1 December Archived from the original on 21 January Retrieved 25 October Archived from the original on 11 October From Logo to Letter".

Retrieved 10 January Retrieved 6 August Archived from the original on 30 June Retrieved 21 May Retrieved 28 April Retrieved 22 June Retrieved 1 October Can the euro zone survive its debt crisis?

Retrieved 1 December Retrieved 24 July Retrieved 2 January A Critical Review of Sterp". Retrieved 30 April Retrieved 8 July Archived from the original PDF on 25 August Retrieved 17 September Retrieved 8 November Straw says eurozone 'will collapse ' ".

Triennial Central Bank Survey. Retrieved 22 March Risk aversion in the Eurozone , Research in Economics , vol. Evidence from the European Car Market".

Journal of International Economics. The History of the Bundesbank: Lessons for the European Central Bank.

The Euro and European Labour Markets". Journal of Public Policy. Retrieved 2 October Archived from the original PDF on 24 July Review of International Economics.

Review of World Economics. Retrieved 13 July Is there a Positive Effect? Archived from the original PDF on 3 September The trade effect of the euro in historical perspective".

Journal of International Money and Finance. Archived from the original PDF on 31 August Archived from the original PDF on 6 July International Journal of Central Banking.

Retrieved 23 August Journal of Money, Credit and Banking. Retrieved 12 November Quarterly Journal of Economics.

Journal of Empirical Finance. Journal of the Japanese and International Economies. Lane 22 August The origins of the euro crisis".

Retrieved 16 September Archived from the original on 17 March Retrieved 13 March Evidence from micro data" PDF. Archived from the original PDF on 19 July Retrieved 28 December Retrieved 28 March Retrieved 29 December The euro is the single currency of the member states that have adopted it.

To make this singleness apparent, Community law requires a single spelling of the word euro in the nominative singular case in all community and national legislative provisions, taking into account the existence of different alphabets.

Retrieved 12 January Bland annat förstärktes stabilitets- och tillväxtpakten för att säkra sunda statsfinanser genom ökad insyn och samordning.

En europeisk bankunion utarbetades med syfte att bland annat stärka tillsynen av bankerna. Innan införandet av sedlar och mynt användes de tidigare nationella valutorna som underenheter till euron.

I december gick euron om den amerikanska dollarn som valutan med störst kontantvärde i världen. Eurosedlarna finns i sju olika valörer: Genom monetära avtal med unionen har även de europeiska mikrostaterna Andorra , Monaco , San Marino och Vatikanstaten rätt att prägla euromynt med egna nationella sidor.

Detta underlättar till exempel för personer som bor och arbetar i olika medlemsstater. I praktiken har en rutin för internationella betalningar förenklats och införts även inrikes.

Grekland anslöt sig den 1 januari och följdes därefter av Slovenien den 1 januari , Cypern och Malta den 1 januari , Slovakien den 1 januari , Estland den 1 januari , Lettland den 1 januari och Litauen den 1 januari Därutöver har de fyra europeiska mikrostaterna Andorra , Monaco , San Marino och Vatikanstaten euron som valuta genom monetära avtal med unionen.

Internationell användning av euron förekommer runt om i världen i olika former, till exempel genom användningen av euron som reservvaluta eller som ankare för att stabilisera en nationell valuta.

Euron är jämte den amerikanska dollarn en av världens viktigaste reservvalutor. Inom unionen har Danmark genom Europeiska växelkursmekanismen samt Bulgarien , Kroatien , Rumänien och Ungern bundit sina valutor till euron.

De enda medlemsstater som varken har euron som valuta eller har bundit sin valuta till euron är Polen , Storbritannien , Sverige och Tjeckien. Andra valutor är knutna till euron genom valutakorgar.

Detta har i sin tur lett till en rad politiska och ekonomiska effekter. Det innebär att Europeiska centralbanken bestämmer reporäntan och reglerar penningmängden.

Som en konsekvens av eurokrisen har den ekonomiska samordningen och styrningen dock förstärkts avsevärt. För en stat med en egen valuta kan devalvering eller depreciering användas för att stärka statens konkurrenskraft gentemot omvärlden.

Avsaknaden av möjligheten till devalvering och depreciering behöver inte nödvändigtvis vara en nackdel eftersom det tvingar de nationella regeringarna att ta itu med deras faktiska strukturella problem.

Avsaknaden av möjligheten till devalvering innebär i teorin lägre marknadsräntor eftersom räntemarknaden inte behöver vara rädd för valutarisker. Den lägre räntan i medlemsstater som tidigare haft sämre stabilitet har varit starkt bidragande till det.

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